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What is the direct, composite and indirect, porcelain veneer?

It is mainly used on the front teeth, for correction of aesthetical faults, discolourations and broken teeth.
The direct technique involves placing a soft or malleable filling into the prepared tooth and building up the tooth before the material sets hard. The advantage of direct restorations is that they usually set quickly and can be placed in a single procedure. Since the material is required to set while in contact with the tooth, limited energy can be passed to the tooth from the setting process without damaging it. Where strength is required, especially as the fillings become larger, indirect restorations may be the best choice.

The indirect technique of fabricating the restoration outside of the mouth using the dental impressions of the prepared tooth. Common indirect restorations include inlays and onlays, crowns, bridges, and veneers. Usually a dental technician fabricates the indirect restoration from records the dentist has provided of the prepared tooth. The finished restoration is usually bonded permanently with a dental cement. It is often done in two separate visits to the dentist. Common indirect restorations are done using gold or ceramics.

While the indirect restoration is being prepared, a temporary restoration is sometimes used to cover the prepared part of the tooth, which can help maintain the surrounding dental tissues.

Is it possible to supply a tooth without abrading?

If only one tooth is missing the neighbouring teeth will be abraded and the absence will be replaced by a bridge. If those neighbouring teeth are healthy and the patient doesn't want to abrade them, then implantation or a so called adhesive bridge can be done. The adhesive bridge is a glued technique: the missing tooth is formed from a special filling material and fixed to the healthy neighbouring teeth.